- C - Glossary Terms


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Calcium is a mineral needed for healthy teeth, bones, and other body tissues. It is the most common mineral in the body.



A calorie is a unit of energy often used to express the nutritional value of foods. One calorie is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water through one degree Celsius. 



Carbohydrates are foods or containing a lot of sugars, starch, and cellulose, or similar substances that can be broken down to release energy in the human body, and make up one of the main nutritional food groups.



Carbon is one of the basic elements of any living thing. Carbon is known as the most essential elements for life, and the second most abundant after oxygen in the human body. 



Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration. It is naturally present in air and is absorbed by plants in photosynthesis.



Carbon footprint is the measure of the amount of carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds emitted due to the consumption of fossil fuels by a particular person, group, etc. 



A carbonic acid is a very weak acid formed in solution when carbon dioxide dissolves in water.



Raw feeding is a diet consisting primarily of uncooked meat, edible bones, and organs. The ingredients used to formulate raw diets vary. There are two main raw feeding models - BARF and Prey Model.



Cassava is a starchy tuberous root of a shrubby tropical tree that is used as food in tropical countries. 



CE Certification is a marking representing that a product complies with the EU's New Approach Directives. This certification affixed to a product signifies that a product can be sold in Europe.


CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)

The CFIA is dedicated to safeguarding food, animals, and plants, which enhances the health and well-being of Canada's pets, people, environment, and economy. As a science-based regulator, the CFIA has a broad mandate that encompasses food safety, animal health, plant health, and international market access. 



A colony is a cluster of bacteria growing together - Colony Forming Units (CFU's) is a unit of measurement used to determine the number of bacterial cells in a probiotic supplement or lab sample. High CFU counts are sometimes seen as a quality indicator, but it is one part of a high-quality supplement. 



A chew toy is an object designed to be chewed on by animals for stimulation and relief from boredom or discomfort. Chew toys can help relieve pain associated with teething in younger animals, such as puppies. There are several types of chew toys made from different materials, including nylon, rawhide, wood, rope, and more. Chew toys are commonly associated with dogs, but have also been effective with birds, rodents, and rabbits.



Chi is the vital energy that is held to animate the body internally and is of central importance in some Eastern systems of medical treatment such as acupuncture.



Chlorine is a chemical element that is a toxic, corrosive, greenish-yellow gas that is irritating to the eyes and to the respiratory system.



A chronic disease or health condition are conditions that last 1 year or more and requires ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living or both. 



Clinical trials are research studies that test medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. These trials are the primary way that researchers determine if a new form of treatment or prevention, such as a new drug, diet, or medical device, is safe and effective.



The general condition of a dog's skin and coat are good indicators of their health. A healthy coat should be shiny and smooth, not brittle or coarse, and healthy skin should be supple and clear, not greasy, flaky, or bumpy. Although health and nutrition influence the shine and texture of a dog’s coat from the inside, regular grooming and skin care on the outside will also help keep a dog's coat clean and free of tangles, no matter what type of hair coat they have.



Cognitive relates to the mental process involved in knowing, learning, and understanding things. 



Cold infusion uses time instead of heat to extract. There are some herbs that do better in cold-water infusion as some of their healing properties can be lost with heat. A few herbs that benefit from a cold infusion are marshmallow root, slippery elm, nettle, lemon balm, and comfrey root. 



Cold press is the process of pressing without applying heat from an external source. Cold pressing in juices is separating the fiber from the cells of fruits and vegetables without the aid of heat. Cold-pressed oils are produced by pressing the parent seed, nut, or grain at the lowest possible temperature without any further pressing. 



Collagen is the main structural protein found in skin and other connective tissues, widely used in purified form for cosmetic surgical treatments. Vitamin C plays a vital role in the formation of collagen



Colustrum is the first form of breastmilk that is released by the mammary glands after giving birth. It's nutrient-dense and high in antibodies and antioxidants to build a newborn baby's immune system. It changes to breast milk within two to four days after a baby is born. Colustrum is thicker and more yellow than traditional breast milk.



A complete meal is a combination of a lean protein, slow-digesting carbohydrates, healthy fats, and a micronutrient-rich vegetable that provides essential nutrients such as macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals. 



Complex carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules that are strung together in long, complex chains. Complex carbs are found in foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbs are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are sued as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any unused glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for use later. Complex carbohydrate foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber that are important to the health of an individual. The majority of carbohydrates should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars, rather than processed or refined sugars, which do not have the vitamins, minerals, and fiber found in complex carbohydrates. Refined sugars are often called "empty calories" because they have little to no nutritional value.



A compostable product is one that can disintegrate into non-toxic, natural elements. Compostable products require microorganisms, humidity, and heat to yield a finished compost product (CO2, water, inorganic compounds, and biomass).



Consumer returns occur when customers bring back a product they previously purchased back to the retailer for refund or credit.



Contamination is the act of process of making something impure, unsuitable, or poisonous by contact with something unclean, unwanted, or dangerous substances.


Coopper, nutritionally, is  an essential trace mineral found in some foods and in supplements. It works to assist various enzymes that produce energy for the body, break down and absorb iron, and build red blood cells, collagen, connective tissue, and brain neurotransmitters.



Cruelty-free means that animal testing is prohibited in each and every step and phase of the production process of a product. 





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