- B - Glossary Terms


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Bacteria are small single-celled organisms that are found almost everywhere on Earth. They are vital to the planet’s ecosystems. Some can live under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. These microorganisms have cells walls but lack organelles and organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease. Human and animal bodies are full of bacteria including “good bacteria” that help bodies digest food and absorb nutrients. These good bacteria also produce several vitamins in the intestinal tract, including folic acid, niacin, and vitamin B6 and B12. “Bad Bacteria” are a type of pathogen that can cause disease. They can reproduce quickly in a body and give off poisons or toxins that can cause infection. Harmful bacteria in pets include (but are not limited to) ehrlichiosis, rocky mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and kennel cough.




A bacterial colony is a group of bacteria derived from the same mother cell. This means that a single mother cell reproduces to make a group of genetically identical cells. This group of cells form a mass, which is the bacterial colony. 



A nutritionally balanced diet is one that considers and meets an individual animal’s nutritional needs throughout its life. If a diet is not nutritionally balanced, it will not be meeting the animals nutritional needs. This can lead to poor health and subsequent welfare issues.



BIOLOGICALLY APPROPRIATE RAW FOOD DIET is an alternative raw diet designed to provide dogs with a modified homemade diet that consists of raw muscle meat and raw meaty bones, as well as vegetables and fruits while eliminating all processed foods. BARF diet ratios include vegetables, seeds, and fruit to provide many additional essential vitamins and minerals.



Bentonite clay is a kind of absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay formed by the breakdown of volcanic ash. Similar to Montmorillonite, Zeolite, Cristobalite, Chalcedony, and Opan, Bentonite is an absorptive and colloidal clay used in some cat litters, among other things.



A salt of carbonic acid containing the ion HCO3. it is a substance called a base, which the body needs to help keep a normal acid-base (pH) balance. This balance prevents the body from becoming too acidic, which can cause many health problems. The lungs and kidneys keep a normal blood pH by removing excess acid. Bicarbonate is a byproduct of the body’s metabolism. Blood brings bicarbonate to the lungs and then it is exhaled as carbon dioxide.



Any ingredient that can help a mixture hold its shape or remain bound together. Traditional binding agents include flour and eggs. The most commonly used food binder is flour. 



Refers to the rate and extent to which an active constituent or active moiety of a substance is absorbed from the substance and reaches circulation becoming completely available to its intended biological destination(s). 



A substance or object capable of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms. These products can decay naturally and in a way that is not harmful.



Biohazards are any biological or chemical substance that is dangerous to humans, animals, or the environment. This can include body fluids, human tissue and blood, and recombinant DNA.



Biological makeup consists of the genetic or hereditary characteristics of a person or species. Genes influence each individual’s behavioral and psychological characteristics, including intellectual ability, personality, and risk for mental illness - all of which have bearing on both parents and offspring within a family.



Biotics are living things within an ecosystem made up of a biotic community, all of the naturally occurring organisms within the system, together with the physical environment. This includes prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics.


Body composition is the body’s amount of fat relative to the fat-free mass. Animals and people with optimal body composition are typically healthier, move more easily and efficiently, and generally feel better. Although a certain amount of body fat is needed to insure good health, excess body fat has been found to dramatically increase the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.



Bone development initially forms during fetal development and undergoes secondary ossification after birth and is remodeled throughout life. The formation of bone during the fetal stage of development occurs by two processes: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. Secondary ossification occurs after birth and forms the epiphyses of long bones and the extremities of irregular and flat bones. After initial bone development, bones are remodeled throughout life to regulate calcium homeostasis and repair micro-damaged bones (from everyday stress ), as well as to shape the skeleton during growth. Remodeling or bone turnover is the process of resorption followed by the replacement of bone with little change in shape, and occurs throughout an animal’s life, long beyond the initial development of bone. The purpose of remodeling is to regulate calcium homeostasis and repair micro-damage from everyday stress, as well as to shape the skeleton during growth. Repeated stress, such as weight-bearing exercise or bone healing, results in the bone thickening at the points of maximum stress



Botanicals are medicines derived and obtained from a plant source and used as an additive. A botanical is a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, flavor, and/or scent. Herbs are a subset of botanicals. Products made from botanicals that are used to maintain or improve health are sometimes called herbal products, botanical products, or phytomedicines.



BPA (bisphenol A) is an industrial chemical compound that has been used to make and harden certain plastics and resins since the 1950’s. BPA is found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Canada and the USA both have laws in place to protect newborns and infants to exposure to BPA by banning the use of this chemical in baby bottles for example.



A bull stick is a single-ingredient dog chew that is made from high-protein beef muscle, specifically, the pizzle (or penis) of a bull. Beef muscle is a complete source of amino acids, which support a dog’s muscles, brain, skin, and coat. Bully sticks are highly digestible, splinter-free, great option for dogs with food allergies or sensitivities, help with dental care, and more. Dogs of any breed, size or age can take advantage of their many great benefits of this dog treat while satisfying their natural instinct to chew.




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