- A - Glossary Terms


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Association of American Feed Control Officials is an independent organization that has been guiding state, federal, and international feed regulators with ingredient definitions, label standards, and laboratory standards for more than 110 years while supporting the health and safety of people and animals. Their members are charged by their local, state or federal laws to regulate the sale and distribution of animal feeds and animal drug remedies.




The passing of digested food through the wall of the intestines into the blood or lymph




Enzymes are proteins – primary constituents of all living organisms. They act as catalysts, which means that they make biochemical reactions happen faster than they would otherwise. Without enzymes, those reactions simply would not occur or would run too slowly to sustain life. For example, without enzymes, digestion would be impossible. Like all proteins, enzymes consist of chains of amino acids. Most biochemical reactions in humans, plants and animals are catalyzed by enzymes and their actions vary depending ultimately on their amino acid sequence. Each enzyme has a specific action depending on the three-dimensional structure and in particular the active site of the enzyme molecule. The catalytic reaction occurs through a specific region of the enzyme where the substrate bind. This region is called the ‘active site’. Enzymes are not always active. There are several factors that influence enzyme activity. Enzymes in the body are stored and secreted in their inactive form. This prevents the internal organs from the action of enzymes.




A substance added to something in small quantities to improve or preserver it. Natural additives are chemical compounds extracted from plants, animals, or minerals. Synthetic additives are not extracts but are the result of a chemical or enzymatic reaction. They are either completely identical to a natural equivalent, or pure creations which do not exist in a natural state.




Water aeration is the process of increasing or maintaining the oxygen saturation of water in both natural and artificial environments. It is the process of bringing water and air into close contact, allowing it to absorb atmospheric oxygen and help evaporate and removed dissolved toxic gases and volatile compounds like chlorine, THM’s and CO2, as well as unwanted odors. There are various methods to achieve aerated water, such as fountains, bobbles, falls, sprinkling, propeller, vortex, and swirling.




Preservation of food in which the product is made dry through contact with air to such a degree that no further moisture is given upon exposure to air.




Being or composed of ingredients that are from nature and not artificial.




A substance capable of triggering a response that starts in the immune system and results in an allergic reaction. It is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.




Therapeutic approaches taken in place of traditional medicine and used to treat disease or ameliorate it - make it better.




Plant-based and food-technology alternatives to animal proteins. They include food products made from plants (for example grains, legumes, and nuts), fungus, algae, and insects.




In biochemistry, is the frequency with which each of the constituent amino acids occurs in a protein




Ammonia is a waste product that bacteria in the intestines make when digesting protein. Ammonia is toxic and, if not neutralized, exerts downstream toxic effects. The body treats ammonia as a waste product and gets rid of it through the liver. The bloodstream moves the urea to the kidneys, where it is eliminated in the urine. Urine may have an ammonia smell when it becomes concentrated with waste products by eating certain foods, supplement use, a urinary tract infection, a liver or kidney problem, dehydration, or other possible causes




A group of grains and pseudocereals (seeds that are consumed like grains) that have remained mostly unchanged for thousands of years. They are dietary staples in many parts of the world and include varieties of wheat: spelt, Khorasan wheat (Kamut), einkorn, and emmer; the grains millet, barley, teff, oats, and sorghum.




Involves the processing of ingredients and the manufacture of animal feeds and is an integral part of animal production systems to provide high-quality and nutritious foods. It includes the application of physical, chemical, biochemical, biological, and engineering techniques to increase the nutrient utilization of feed.




Entails the study of the composition of the material consumed by the animal and how this material is metabolized. It is a key asset of the compound feed and premix industry that focuses on the dietary nutrient needs of animals primarily those in agriculture and food production.




The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) was the first federal law in the US regulating animals in research, teaching, testing, exhibition, and transport. The AWA applies to animal carriers, handlers, dealers, breeders, and exhibitors in addition to research laboratories, and sets minimum standards of care that must be provided for animals—including housing, handling, sanitation, food, water, veterinary care and protection from weather extremes. It covers warm-blooded species,with the exception of birds, rats of the genus Rattus, and mice of the genus Mus -bred for use in research.




A medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms and bacteria. Agriculture uses antibiotics to help reduce death rates among livestock. The overuse of antibiotics in food-producing animals is being blamed for the increase in resistant bacteria, also known as “superbugs”



Food or substance used to reduce inflammation, which is a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection. There are synthetic drug-related anti-inflammatories, however, there are many known foods that act as natural anti-inflammatories, such as green leafy vegetables, olive oil, berries, avocados, fatty fish, and more




Destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and especially pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites no longer respond to antimicrobial medicines. 



Molecules stable enough to fight free radicals by donating an electron to a rampaging free radical and neutralizing it, thus reducing its capacity to damage. Free radicals are compounds that can cause harm if their levels become too high in the body and are linked to multiple illnesses, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. The body has its own antioxidant defenses to keep free radicals in check The most familiar natural antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other related carotenoids, along with the minerals selenium and manganese.



Water solvent form of carbon dioxide




A group of chemical substances that are added to food during the manufacturing process. These chemical additives can slow down or restrict food deterioration caused by microorganisms and oxidation reactions. They are added to food, sprayed on the outside of food, or added to certain medications to retard spoilage.




Refers to the abundance of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere, especially in the troposphere that allows life to flourish. Atmospheric oxygen is the most important need humans have, even more important than food.



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